Environmental Solutions A Western Water Products Company Distributor
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RECOVERY SYSTEMS DEFINITION OF TERMS
other substances into
a liquid or solid without
A solution with a pH value less than 7.
has undergone a
process of activation which greatly
increases its surface area
and therefore sites for adsorption. It
is not unusual to have over 3,000 square feet of
surface per gram of carbon. Its
uses in water treatment are many, including the adsorption of taste, odor,
and color. A laboratory use
is for the concentration of organic matter for waste treatment analysis.
Sodium silicate that has been systematically precipitated by reducing the
pH to below 9, usually by chlorine.
A process of secondary waste
treatment designed to encourage growth of aerobic
bacteria by forcing large quantities of air through the waste and recycling
viable bacteria to the incoming waste.
Physical adhesion of molecules or colloids to the surface of solids
without chemical reaction.
AERATE, AERATION: To
impregnate or saturate water or waste with air.
Ferrous iron removal, flotation, encouraging aerobic bacteria
treatment and carbon dioxide removal are its major purposes.
An organism, usually in reference to bacteria, that thrives in the
presence of oxygen.
To gather fine particulates
together into a larger mass.
Simple plants, often microscopic, usually aquatic.
A chemical highly toxic to algae, such as copper sulfate, preferably
having selective toxicity in the proper concentration for algae with negligible
toxicity for other forms of life.
Generally considered the bicarbonate, carbonate and hydroxide
contents, although other materials contribute.
Capable of reacting in water either as a weak acid
or as a weak base. For
example, aluminum salts hydrolyze in water to produce a compound that may be
considered a weak base, or a weak acid. A
property of certain oxides makes them reactive both with acids and bases.
An organism, usually in reference to bacteria, that thrives in the
absence of oxygen.
ANION: A negatively charged ion resulting from dissociation of
salts, acids, or alkalis in aqueous solution.
The condition of a polymer, colloid, or large particle having
exchangeable cations on its surface and an opposite, negative charge on the
In electrolysis or electrochemical corrosion, a site where metal goes
into solution as a cation leaving behind an equivalent number of electrons to be
transferred to an opposite electrode, called a cathode.
The treatment of a metal surface whereby the metal is made anodic.
An index of specific gravity defined by the American Petroleum Institute.
A simple gravity separator meeting the design standards of the American
Petroleum Institute for separation of oil and solids from wastewater.
A porous, subsurface
geological structure carrying or holding water, such as a well.
Insulation from mineral asbestos. Frequently
used in ceiling and high temperature insulation.
An organism capable of consuming inorganic matter and converting it to
A solution with a pH value higher than 7.
Technology economically achievable
The raw material for aluminum sulfate manufacture
Technology, regardless of
A chemical used to control the population of troublesome microbes.
Biological materials which may be present in waste streams including:
dissolved solids, coliform bacteria (BOD and COD)
All living organism of a specified region.
A readily visible concentration of algae growth usually occurring in the
absence of an algaecide when weather, sunlight and nutrient conditions
favor a logarithmic phase of growth.
Demand. The amount of
oxygen required by bacteria to
destroy organic material present in
LOAD FOR TRICKLING FILTER: Pounds of BOD
per day, in waste applied, per 1,000 cubic feet of filter volume
The percent BOD is reduced through treatment. It is a useful figure in the calculation of waste plant
efficiency if not misused.
Technology currently available
An extremely effective technique in controlling
bacteria, taste and odor. The
chlorine dose is increased with an accompanying increase in combined residual to
a point where the residual abruptly drops.
This is called the break-point where combined chlorine is broken apart by
further oxidation releasing free nitrogen and other gases.
As the chlorine dose is increased,
the residual will increase proportionately as free chlorine.
The bombardment of colloidal
particles by molecules of the dispersing medium
which keeps the colloid agitated and suspended indefinitely.
(Bottom sediment and water). A
measure of oil quality based on the volume percent of sediment and water that
can be centrifuged from a sample.
A substance in solution which accepts hydrogen ions or hydroxyl ions
added to the solution as acids or
alkalis, minimizing a change in pH.
A high purity form of calcium carbonate.
A term applied to a dewatered residue from a filter, centrifuge or other
That hardness in a water caused by bicarbonates and carbonates of calcium
and magnesium. If alkalinity exceeds total hardness, all
hardness is carbonate hardness; if
hardness exceeds alkalinity, the carbonate hardness equals the alkalinity.
A compound that has a great effect on water treatment.
It is often a major factor affecting alkalinity, buffer capacity,
stability, corrosion, floc settling, filter gassing and a host of minor effects.
That part of the floc that has not flocculated to settleable
size or has been mechanically sheared or torn up so that it carries over
and settles on the filters. It is a
measure of coagulation and mechanical flocculation efficiency.
Addition of a material (catalyst) that does not take a direct part in a
chemical reaction but increases the rate of the reaction.
A positively charged ion resulting from dissociation of molecules in
The condition of a polymer, colloid or large particle having exchangeable
anions on its surface and an
opposite, positive charge on the substrate.
A common water treatment chemical, sodium hydroxide (lye).
Organic compounds having the ability to withdraw ions from their water
solutions into soluble complexes.
Combined chlorine formed by the reaction of ammonia.
These are reported to be effective bactericides although have a slower
rate of kill. They are used where
difficulty is experienced in
maintaining a free chlorine residual and occasionally where phenolic taste makes
chlorine undesirable due
to the resulting chlorophenol taste. Chloramines
are also formed by reaction with nitrogenous portions of the chlorine demand.
An element widely used in
water and waste treatment for disinfection and sterilization; a valuable
oxidizing agent. It is a greenish gas under normal conditions, choking and
highly toxic on inhalation.
A powerful oxidizing agent. It
is unstable and is produced in water and waste plants by adding sodium chlorite
water containing an excess of chlorine.
Caution: reacts violently with most organic material.
Chlorine in solution uncombined or unreacted with
other materials. This can
obviously be obtained only after the entire chlorine demand has been satisfied.
This is the most effective bactericidal
state. It is common practice to
refer to chlorine, hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite as free chlorine residual.
The association or ecological balance of many species
found in an unpolluted environment.
Attempts are made to use these as a measure of pollution.
The same is true of polluted water organisms.
A coagulant is a substance which when added to a colloidal dispersion
destabilizes the dispersion by neutralizing the charges on the particles,
usually negative, causing the colloidal particles to collide and agglomerate
into larger particles.
The term coagulation is the name for this process.
Any material that substantially aids coagulation and/or flocculation but
which would not function as a coagulant alone.
Such materials are usually highly selective, and the dose is critical
depending upon raw water conditions. They
are widely diverse compounds, a few of which are clays, agar, gelatin, sodium silicate (activated silica) synthetic polymers and
natural or modified starch.
Oxygen Demand. A test that measures the amount of the total organic matter in a waste that can be oxidized by a
strong oxidizing agent, current
with silver sulfate as a
catalyst under acid conditions. There
is seldom a direct correlation with BOD.
A bacteria group used as an indicator of fecal contamination.
Except for special cases they are considered benign.
A positive test indicate the possibility of the presence of enteric
pathogens, disease germs
originating in the intestine.
Small solid particles dispersed in a water medium is the class of
colloidal dispersion normally dealt with in water and waste treatment.
The particle size is from 1 to 100
millimicrons, although the actual size may be open to argument, especially at
the smaller end of the scale. The
particles are charged and exhibit Brownian Movement and the Tyndall Effect.
The process of increasing the dissolved solids per unit volume of
solution, usually by evaporation of
the liquid; also the amount of
material dissolved in a unit volume of solution.
The ability of a substance to conduct heat or electricity.
Electrical conductivity is usually expressed in microsiemans per
In the pulp/paper industry, a term for the density in percent by weight
dry matter, of a slurry of pulp.
Any foreign component present
in another substance.
An industrial by-product varying between manufacturers in chemical
content, impurities and physical properties. The
iron content is bivalent. Its
use by mistake instead of ferric sulfate could be harmful, since if not fully
oxidized to the ferric state it will carry through to the finished water.
Both ferrous and ferric sulfates can be called iron sulfate in generic
Ferrous sulfate oxidized with chlorine in order to function as a
coagulant. Theoretically, one pound of chlorine is required to oxidize eight
pounds of copperas. In practice,
an excess of chlorine is needed. If
the copperas is not totally oxidized, soluble ferrous iron will carry through to
the finished water.
Cupric sulfate, bluestone.
Its major use in water treatment is as an algaecide.
A term usually used in
reference to metals. It is the result
of a chemical or galvanic reaction in which the metal is solubilized or changed
to a soluble metal salt thereby losing weight and
being weakened. Where iron
is corroded in finished water, the solubilized iron result in water quality
An oil-refining process that breaks large molecules into smaller ones.
The process of removing ink from secondary fibers.
Any process removing ions from water, but most commonly an ion exchange
process where cations and anions are removed independently by each other.
Any process used to remove minerals from water;
however, commonly the term is restricted to ion exchange processes.
The removal of inorganic dissolved solids from water.
The removal of salt from crude oil.
Treatment of solids from a paint spray booth to eliminate their sticky
The time retained in a treatment plant or a specific portion of the
Sulfanated neutralized products of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.
Newer detergents are biodegradable.
To separate water from sludge to produce a cake that can be handled as a
DIALYSIS: A separation process that depends on differences in diffusion
rates of solutes across a permeable membrane.
Organisms related to algae, having a brown pigmentation and a siliceous
A term generally used to describe a process of anaerobic decomposition of
putrifiable solids to methane and carbon dioxide.
Total detention time is reported to be
from 10 to 30 days to two to three months.
Sometimes aerobic digestion is used.
The effect of a large volume of liquid dilution.
Waste Treatment - The effect
of a given volume and strength of waste when dispersed in a receiving body of
water. As an example, total treatment may be necessary during low
flow stream conditions, but little or none necessary during flood stage.
Water Treatment - Usually used in reference to chemical feed.
A chemical may be corrosive in a concentrated solution but have no
corrosive effect at all when diluted by the raw water.
Sometimes it is used to refer to free water source to below
the problem threshold. This
is often the case in wells or well and surface combinations.
To free from infectious, disease producing or harmful microorganisms
A chemical which causes particulates in a water system to remain in
Oxygen dissolved in system above requirements for BOD and COD.
Measure of water quality.
Technically any material that has been dissolved
becoming a true solution. Finely
divided and colloidal solids sometime are reported
as D.S. or total dissolved solids
T.D.S. These are more
correctly included as suspended solids, although State Health Department
procedures usually are followed.
Sewage from homes without industrial contaminants.
The science of the interrelations between living organisms and their
The process of extracting one solid from another.
Often used incorrectly to describe the regeneration of an ion exchanger
A waste treatment term. The washing of sludge to remove soluble materials
which may inhibit coagulation and compacting which reduces the final volume of
A colloidal dispersion of one liquid in another.
The transport of water into a gas stream.
In a boiler, this is a carryover, in a cooling tower, drift.
The sum of all external influences and conditions affecting the life and
development of an organism. Total
environment is a redundant
term used to emphasize the
effect of slight and often momentary changes usually induced by man.
Agency. Formed in 1970.
Administers 9 Federal Environmental Laws:
CWA - Clean Water Act
SDWA - Safe Drinking Water Act
CERCLA - Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (SUPERFUND)
RCRA - Resource Conservation & Recovery Act
IFRA - Federal Insecticide, Fungicide & Rodenticide Act
- Marine Protection Research & Sanctuaries Act
- Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act
-Toxic Substances Control Act
Nutrient enrichment of water. Euthrophic
waters support rich organic production such
as algae blooms. The term is
sometimes used to describe the mechanism causing the filling of a lake with
Bacteria able to grow under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Facultative erobes
are fundamentally aerobic but can grow or even thrive in the absence of oxygen.
A facultative anaerobe is anaerobic but can grow in the presence of
FAT: Basically insoluble animal fat.
FAUNA: The entire animal life of a specific region.
Food & Drug
A trivalent iron coagulant and sludge conditioner.
Its water treatment use is limited by its corrosiveness even to stainless
steel and toxicity to handling personnel when putting it into solution.
The end product and floc former resulting from the use of ferric iron
coagulants. In natural water the
floc is composed of complex chemicals including ferric hydroxide, but the
chemical characteristics are
analogous. Ferric hydroxide is
insoluble at all normal pH's encountered in water and waste treatment since it
A widely used coagulant and sludge conditioner which tolerates a wide
range of pH and turbidity conditions. The
contained iron is in the trivalent state, and is therefore a coagulant without
& Drug & Cosmetics
Act - responsible for pesticides in food.
Similar to coagulant aids but added to water prior to filtration.
Their purpose appears to be to produce an artificial or synthetic
“schmutzdecke” to improve the efficiency of filtration.
They have proven useful with filters in poor condition in which
particulate migration or breakthrough occur.
They are also recommended for some high rate filters.
It is graded similarly to a sand filter, but is considerably
coarser and lighter. It
requires less backwash pressure, but the coarseness (0.72mm) sometimes
A portion of the top level of a sand filter is replaced with anthracite
media. This gives longer filter
runs with the safety of sand filters. Results
have generally been good.
An apparently successful attempt to increase the rate of sand filtration
and utilization of the entire bed rather than the top four to eight inches.
The media is graded by density so the large media is on the surface with
the particle size decreasing with depth. It
is relatively new, but excellent results have been observed.
The choice of filters and methods will depend on the size of the
particulate matter to be removed or the size or amount of particles that can be
tolerated in the filtrate. Ordinary
laboratory filter papers vary widely in the porosity.
Usually the higher the number designating the paper, the smaller the
particle it will remove.
Mainly used in industrial water treatment, but occasionally found in
municipal treatment plants. It is a filter entirely enclosed in a metal tank except for
inlet and outlet connections. The
media varies widely.
The filter media is sand graded by size with the smallest size being on
the surface. The normal filter rate
is approximately 2 gal./min./sq. ft. before loss of head and backwash.
It is reported that only the top four to eight inches is utilized.
The liquid remaining after removal of solids as a cake in a filter.
The process of separating solids from liquids by porous substance through
which only the liquid means of
The portion of a superheated fluid converted to vapor when its pressure
MIX, FAST MIX:
This stage along with accurate chemical feed
is the heart of every water plant and waste plant utilizing coagulation.
The coagulant must be
completely mixed with the raw water or waste within seconds to obtain optimum
results from coagulation.
Turbidity or particulate matter that has been agglomerated.
Whether particulate agglomeration has proceeded enough to be called a
floc is a matter of individual judgment.
The process of agglomerating or building of the macrofloc that resulted
from coagulation into large agglomerates until the shear force of
water movement prevents further building or
until it settles out. There
is academic argument over the mechanisms, however it is generally held that the
greatest effects on flocculation are caused by the quality of the earlier
chemical coagulation stage, and from that point the mechanical efficiency
designed into the plant; therefore, flocculation in basically a mechanical
That portion of a water or waste plant following the flash mix but prior
to settling. The purpose of the flocculator in to gently
agitate the macrofloc from the flash mix giving it the opportunity to build
larger without shearing or tearing up the floc in any way.
This non-shearing requirement is ignored in some plant designs resulting
in poor efficiency, high chemical costs, short filter runs and marginal quality
The entire plant life of a specific region.
A process of separating solids from water by developing a froth in a
vessel in such fashion that the solids attach to air particles and float to the
surface for collection.
The addition of small quantities of a fluoride to potable water to bring
the maximum fluoride content to the usually
of 1.0 to 11 mg/L.
Fluoridation is for the reduction of dental cavities in children.
Hydrocarbons, fatty acids, soaps, fats and waxes whose content is
determined by freon extraction of the sample and infrared analysis of the
extract. The method
includes both suspended and dissolved substances.
Usually the dissolved substances cannot be removed by mechanical means.
Generic term for hydrocarbon fuels.
FUNGI: As applied to water, simple, one-celled animals without
chlorophyll, often filamentous. Molds
and Yeasts are included in this category.
FWPCA: Federal Water
Pollution Control Act.
The connection of two dissimilar metals in an electrolyte that results in
current flow through the circuit.
Multiple unit stirrer.
Minute of a flowing stream.
A unit of concentration. lgr/gal
= 17.1 mg/L.
Compounded solid lubricant - contains petroleum base oil, animal fats,
soaps (usually sodium, calcium, lithium), special chemicals.
In waste treatment, a chamber ahead of primary settling to remove sand,
gravel and larger inorganic matter.
They are desirable on all waste treatment plants and almost a necessity where there are cross connections between storm and
Water beneath ground surface.
The concentration of calcium
and magnesium salts in water. Hardness
is a term originally referring to
the soap-consuming power of water;
as such it is sometimes also taken
to include iron and manganese. A
looser definition is any cation or anion that is capable of reacting with soap
to form precipitates, curds or scale.
The measurement of the
amount of divalent metallic ions contained by a water.
Soft 0 to 75 mg/L. Moderate 75
to 150 mg/L. Hard 150 to 300 mg/L.
Very Hard over 300 mg/L.
Waste which is listed by the EPA as being a danger to human health or the
environment. Also includes waste
which may not be listed but has one or more of the following characteristics:
it is ignitable, it is corrosive, or it reacts violently with water or
Labeling a waste containment showing content and date collected.
Chemicals intended to kill plant life, can be selective or general.
The addition of water vapor to air.
The gallons of flow per day per square foot of filter surface area. The use of metric measurement is also accepted.
Having an affinity for water. Its
opposite, non-water-wettable, is hydrophobic.
That region of a body of water that extends from the bottom up to the
region is the most removed from surface influence and is likely to have chemical
reducing conditions and to
concentrate nuisance materials such as manganese and taste.
Combustible or flammable materials; paints, solvents, oils, etc.
Waste that reacts with other materials or water.
An organism found only under certain conditions (usually used regarding
pollution), or in the absence of certain
conditions. Equating pollution to
specific organisms is useful, although a better correlation is made by observation of the
Water containing any type of industrial contaminants as well as sanitary
Inleakage of groundwater into sewage piping.
An atom or molecule that has lost or gained one or more electrons.
Through this ionization it becomes
A process by which certain undesired ions of given charge are absorbed
from solution within an ion-permeable absorbent, being replaced in the solution
by desirable ions of similar charge from the absorbent.
A measure of the strength of a solution based on both the concentrations
and valences of the ions present.
The dissociation of a molecule into atoms or groups of atoms.
This occurs when salts are dissolved in water.
As an example, when copper sulfate is dissolved in water, the solution
contains positive copper ions and negative sulfate ions.
Land application for disposal of effluents.
A common water treatment chemical. Limestone
is burned to product quicklime, which is mixed
with water to produce slaked, or hydrated lime.
A rock containing mainly calcium carbonate and impurities.
Limestone containing both calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate.
Running water such as rivers.
Special crude fraction for viscosity - contains up to 50% chemical
The stage of flocculation when the floc grows large enough to be seen.
An organism visible to the unaided eye.
Large enough to be seen by the unaided eye.
Maximum Contaminant Level of pollution in drinking water.
A barrier, usually thin, that permits the passage only of particles up to
certain size or special nature.
Limitations have been placed on the quantities of metals that can be
discharged from treating plants.
Specification are not always consistent nor are they the same for every
operation. A processor must analyze his process for compliance.
List of metals with restrictions:
Membrane Filter - a bacterial count method.
Milligrams of a substance contained or dissolved in 1,000 liters
(usually water). Equivalent
to parts per million.
Any organism small enough to be invisible or indistinguishable to the
unaided eye. Some authorities
hold that they are only those organisms that can be seen with a microscope.
Any inorganic or fossilized organic material having a definite chemical
composition and structure found in a natural state.
Waste water effluent to streams, lakes, canals, etc.
Must be properly mixed with existing water and meet specifications set
Number - a bacterial count method.
Place to call in case of spill (800) 424-8802. Failure to do so may result in jail sentence and fine.
guide for Superfund activity.
Any of a class or phylum Nematoda, unsegmented roundworms or threadworms.
They live as parasites or live free in soil and water.
Many have a high tolerance for chlorine, thereby protecting some ingested
bacteria and virus.
Standards for Hazardous Pollutants
- very hazardous materials, small quantities.
Most commonly, a chemical reaction that produces a resulting environment
that is neither acidic nor
alkaline. Also, the addition of a
scavenger chemical to an aqueous system in excess concentration to eliminate a
corrosive factor, such as dissolved oxygen.
Hardness in water caused by chlorides, sulfates and nitrates of calcium
OF HAZARDOUS WASTE ACTIVITY FORM:
EPA-8700-12(85) - An application for EPA number.
Covers hazardous waste accumulated.
The National Pollution
System permit required by and issued by EPA.
Nutrient discharges are limited for many waste stream discharges.
This is especially true for nitrogen, phosphorus and potash that may enter streams or
lakes. List of nutrients: total
nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potassium.
An absorption process by which one solid material adheres strongly to
another, sometimes occurring by coprecipitation.
Generic term, includes hydrocarbons, vegetable oils, shale oil, etc.
Water with a small or negligible supply of nutrients that therefore will
support little organic production.
The percentage of light transmission through a plume.
A colormetric indicator for chlorine residual.
It is oxidized well in acid solution by chlorine and chloramines forming
a yellow color. It has been
proposed as a method of determining divalent manganese which interferes with orthotolidine
chlorine tests giving high readings.
The passage of
water through a permeable membrane separating two solutions of different
concentrations; the water passes into the more concentration solution.
Includes miscellaneous chemicals that may become involved in waste
streams. List of other chemicals:
Fat, Oil, Grease
A chemical reaction in which an element or ion is increased in positive
valence, losing electrons to an oxidizing agent.
The fill in a confined space in a stripping vessel, ranging from simply
shaped units such as rocks or slats to complex shapes that provide large surface
area per unit volume.
Disease causing microbes.
- used in transformer oils and some capacitors, carcinogen.
A waste treatment term specifying the percent dry solids in the filter
cake or sludge.
An arrangement of the elements in order of increasing atomic number that
illustrates the repetition (or periodicity) of key characteristics.
The ability of a body to pass a fluid under pressure.
The limitations on pesticides and herbicides reflect the requirements for
potable water as well as the carcinogenic nature of many of these materials.
List of pesticides and herbicides:
Aidrin Endosulfan Methoxychlor 2-4-5-TP
Chiordane Endrin Mirex Malathion
Cushion Heptachlor Polyhedron Methoxychlor
The measure of acidity or alkalinity of a solution.
It is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration and as
such represents the values on an exponential scale.
A pH of 7 is neutral, while a pH of 1 is strongly acidic and a pH of 14
is strongly basic.
The process of converting carbon dioxide and water to carbohydrates
activated by sunlight in the presence of chlorophyll, liberating oxygen.
Any floc that has not developed much beyond the macrofloc, or in the case
of a poorly designed water plant, the remnant of a properly formed floc which
has been mechanically sheared or
broken up to the original size of the macrofloc.
Unattached organisms of small, mostly microscopic size, that have little
or no power of locomotion.
Protozoa and other animal plankton
A contaminant at a concentration high enough to endanger the aquatic
environment or the public health.
A chain of organic molecules produced by the joining of primary units
A powerful oxidizing agent which is gaining wide acceptance in
water treatment for the removal of taste and odor, soluble manganese,
ferrous iron and color. It is a
dark purple crystalline substance, non-corrosive to iron and most plastic but
readily attacks rubber. CAUTION:
Reacts violently with most organic materials.
Billion. Parts of
material per billion parts of solution on a weight basis.
Parts of material per million parts of solution on a weight basis.
An insoluble reaction product; in
an aqueous chemical reaction, usually a crystalline compound that grows in size
to become settleable.
Debris that accumulates at an oil-water interface.
of Water. The lake,
stream, canal. bay, etc. into which an effluent stream discharges.
Undergoes violent and rapid chemical reaction.
Water that has been lime or soda ash softened is supersaturated with
To prevent the eventual precipitation on filter sand, water mains, etc.,
carbon dioxide is reacted with the
calcium carbonate forming the soluble bicarbonate.
Where excess lime is used for magnesium removal, the carbon dioxide
reduces the caustic alkalinity and soluble calcium.
Carbon dioxide is generated
by special coke ovens or natural gas burners.
REDOX POTENTIAL: Reduction-oxidation potential
measured against a standard electrode.
A descriptive but nonspecific term for finely divided particulate matter
contaminating finished water and imparting a brown or reddish cast.
A chemical reaction in which an element or compound gains electrons,
being reduced in positive valence.
A process that reverses (by the application of
pressure) the flow of water in the natural process of osmosis so that it
passes from the more concentrated to the more dilute solution.
Largely domestic wastewater plus some industrial waste.
and Reauthorization Act.
The relation of calcium carbonate to the pH, alkalinity and hardness of a
water to determine its
The precipitate that forms on surfaces in contact with water as the
result of a physical or chemical change.
Double wall tanks, buffer zone - EPA regulations.
This type of treatment refers to wastewater treatment for control of
COD, suspended solids, turbidity, and bacteria and virus control.
The order of preference of an ion exchange material for each of the ions
in the surrounding aqueous environment.
To form a stable, water-soluble complex.
Measure of Shellfish Protection
Water current characteristics in a settling basin, lagoon, classifier and
to a lesser degree in flocculators that channel a portion of the water or waste
directly to the effluent or outlet without taking advantage of the detention
time designed to give complete treatment. It
results in a poorly treated or
subquality effluent. Some short
circuiting is often seen in new plants
and can be easily alleviated by a number of methods.
A measure of the tendency of a water to foul a reverse osmosis membrane,
based on timed flow through a membrane filter at constant pressure.
state control on air pollution.
(mildly hygroscopic) terms
often used to remind the reader that a product will take on moisture under some
conditions although not nearly as deliquescent as a product such
as calcium chloride or
ferric chloride. Testing under
handling conditions is recommended since many variables affect the rate moisture
can be absorbed. Relative humidity,
equipment surface temperature and
volume of air in the case of pneumatic systems are but a few.
A general term in oil refining applying to tramp oil discharge to the
oily sewer during shutdown and start-up or through abnormal operation.
The percent of total solids in a sludge.
An inverse measure of sludge density.
SLUDGE, VOLUME OF:
A waste treatment term specifying the cubic feet of sludge per million
gallons of waste flow.
WEIGHT OF DRY SOLIDS:
treatment term specifying
the pounds of dry sludge solids per million gallons of water flow.
SLURRY: A water containing a high concentration of suspended solids,
usually over 5.000 mg/L.
Neutralization products of organic fatty acids, usually sodium based.
A common water-treatment chemical, sodium carbonate.
Those solids that will settle without coagulation under quiescent
conditions. In waste
treatment analysis an Imhoff Cone is generally used and settleable solids
mg/L. This data will
not correlate if coagulation is used due to the larger quantities of denser
True solids which will not settle under quiescent conditions within a
reasonable length of time.
Colloidal particles fall within this definition, but if solids
determination is made by filtration, colloids will pass the filter and not be
counted. Since colloidal solids are
one-fourth or more of the total
solids of domestic sewage, precise comment on the method of reporting results is
important. Suspended Solids content
- in water treatment
turbidity it is often a more convenient method of reporting than suspended
SOLIDS, TOTAL, T. S.:
A measure of all solids in a waste determined by evaporating it to
A measure of the amount of organic matter present in a waste determined
by combustion under carefully controlled temperature conditions to covert
organics to carbon dioxide and water
but not to volatilize inorganics which would result in a major error.
SOLIDS, WATER TREATMENT:
True dissolved solids which greatly affect stability calculations,
although often ignored.
Waste solids no longer usable to be disposed of or recycled
Control and Countermeasure
To free from living organisms. Sometimes
less correctly defined as the absence of lower organisms.
An expression for calculating the rate of fall of particles through a
fluid based on densities, viscosity and particle size.
Collection system for surface run-off.
Lakes, streams, canals, waterways, etc.
A surface active agent; usually
an organic compound whose molecules contain a hydrophilic group at one end and a
lipophilic group at the other.
Represents the total material actually dissolved in the stream.
It is the same as salt dissolved in water and should not be confused with
suspended solids or turbidity. Total
dissolved solids can include both organic and inorganic materials.
States must set specifications and cover in permits under NPDES by
February 28, 1989. Extensive fines.
Solids. Represents the
material held in suspension in the stream and subject to removal by settling or
flotation. They generally consist
of insoluble organic material as well as sand, grit, and sometimes heavy metals.
A suspension of fine particles that obscures light rays but requires many
days for sedimentation because of the small particle size.
Sometimes called thermal turnover, fall or spring overturn.
It applies particularly to impoundments and lakes.
A naturally occurring physical mixing of the stratified zones often
accompanied by great increase in manganese, iron, taste and odor. It
is usually caused by thermal changes resulting in disruptive density changes of
water in one or more zones. It is
sometimes caused or augmented by wind.
The effect of light scattering or reflection by colloidal particles which
does not occur with true solution. If
a particle is so small as not to exhibit this reflection of a strong beam of light, it is usually considered molecular in size and
not colloidal. Some particles of
organic color may open this definition to argument.
HAZARD WASTE MANIFEST:
EPA form required for hazardous waste shipments.
A device for measuring fluid flow, including a short converging cane
succeeded on the same axis by a long diverging cone.
This device is also used in gas scrubbing.
A process of displacing oil from underground formations with water and
returning it to the surface for
ZETA POTENTIAL: The difference in voltage between the surface of the diffuse layer surrounding a colloidal particle and the bulk liquid beyond.
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